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The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism

Short-term administration of pegvisomant improves hepatic insulin sensitivity and reduces soleus muscle intramyocellular lipid content in young adults with type 1 diabetes.


PMID 24423298

Abstract

Data on the metabolic effects of GH derived from studies using GH suppression by pharmacological agents may not reflect selective actions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of GH antagonism on glucose and lipid metabolism using pegvisomant, a selective GH receptor antagonist in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). In a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 10 young adults with T1D were evaluated at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment with either 10 mg of pegvisomant or placebo. The assessments included an overnight euglycemic steady state followed by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and used glucose and glycerol cold stable isotopes. Hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity (IS), lipid turnover, and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) were measured. Compared with placebo, pegvisomant treatment resulted in lower IGF-I levels (P < .001). During the overnight steady state, insulin requirements for euglycemia (P = .019), insulin levels (P = .008), and glucose production rates (Ra) (P = .033) were reduced. During the clamp study, glucose infusion rates (P = .031) increased and glucose Ra (P = .015) decreased whereas glucose disposal rates were unchanged. Free fatty acid levels were similar during the steady state but were lower during the clamp (P = .040) after pegvisomant. Soleus muscle IMCL decreased after treatment (P = .024); however, no change in tibialis anterior muscle was observed. The study demonstrates that GH antagonism in T1D results in improved hepatic insulin sensitivity. Lack of consistent changes in free fatty acid levels may suggest a direct effect of GH on IS. Unchanged peripheral IS despite reductions in IMCL indicate that GH-induced alterations in IMCL may not be causally linked to glucose metabolism.

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