Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)

Transient Maternal Hypothyroxinemia Potentiates the Transcriptional Response to Exogenous Thyroid Hormone in the Fetal Cerebral Cortex Before the Onset of Fetal Thyroid Function: A Messenger and MicroRNA Profiling Study.

PMID 24436321


Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for brain development both before and after birth. We have used gene expression microarrays to identify TH-regulated genes in the fetal cerebral cortex prior to the onset of fetal thyroid function to better understand the role of TH in early cortical development. TH levels were transiently manipulated in pregnant mice by treatment with goitrogens from gestational day (GD) 13-16 and/or by injection of TH 12 h before sacrifice on GD 16. The transcriptional response to exogenous TH in the GD 16 fetal cortex was potentiated by transient goitrogen treatment, suggesting that the hypothyroxinemic brain is a different substrate upon which TH can act, or that robust compensatory mechanisms are induced by transient hypothyroxinemia. Several known TH-responsive genes were identified including Klf9, and several novel TH-responsive genes such as Appbp2, Ppap2b, and Fgfr1op2 were identified in which TH response elements were confirmed. We also identified specific microRNAs whose expression in the fetal cortex was affected by TH treatment, and determined that Ppap2b and Klf9 are the target genes of miR-16 and miR-106, respectively. Thus, a complex redundant functional network appears to coordinate TH-mediated gene expression in the developing brain.

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TXNRD1 human, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥95% (SDS-PAGE)