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The Journal of endocrinology

Bisphenol A enhances kisspeptin neurons in anteroventral periventricular nucleus of female mice.


PMID 24532816

Abstract

Bisphenol-A (BPA), an environmental estrogen, adversely affects female reproductive health. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We found that oral administration (p.o.) of BPA (20  μg/kg) to adult female mice at proestrus, but not at estrus or diestrus, significantly increased the levels of plasma E₂, LH and FSH, and Gnrh mRNA within 6  h. The administration of BPA at proestrus, but not at diestrus, could elevate the levels of Kiss1 mRNA and kisspeptin protein in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) within 6  h. In contrast, the level of Kiss1 mRNA in arcuate nucleus (ARC) was hardly altered by BPA administration. In addition, at proestrus, a single injection (i.c.v.) of BPA dose-dependently enhanced the AVPV-kisspeptin expression within 6  h, this was sensitive to E₂ depletion by ovariectomy and an estrogen receptor α (ERα) antagonist. Similarly, the injection of BPA (i.c.v.) at proestrus could elevate the levels of plasma E₂, LH, and Gnrh mRNA within 6  h in a dose-dependent manner, which was blocked by antagonists of GPR54 or ERα. Injection of BPA (i.c.v.) at proestrus failed to alter the timing and peak concentration of LH-surge generation. In ovariectomized mice, the application of E₂ induced a dose-dependent increase in the AVPV-Kiss1 mRNA level, indicating 'E₂-induced positive feedback', which was enhanced by BPA injection (i.c.v.). The levels of Erα (Esr1) and Erβ (Esr2) mRNAs in AVPV and ARC did not differ significantly between vehicle-and BPA-treated groups. This study provides in vivo evidence that exposure of adult female mice to a low dose of BPA disrupts the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal reproductive endocrine system through enhancing AVPV-kisspeptin expression and release.