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New journal of chemistry = Nouveau journal de chimie

Endonuclease and Exonuclease Activities on Oligodeoxynucleotides Containing Spiroiminodihydantoin Depend on the Sequence Context and the Lesion Stereochemistry.


PMID 24563606

Abstract

8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (dOG), a well-studied oxidation product of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG), is prone to facile further oxidation forming spiroiminodihydantoin 2'-deoxyribonucleoside (dSp) in the nucleotide pool and in single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs). Many methods for quantification of damaged lesions in the genome rely on digestion of DNA with exonucleases or endonucleases and dephosphorylation followed by LC-MS analysis of the resulting nucleosides. In this study, enzymatic hydrolysis of dSp-containing ODNs was investigated with snake venom phosphodiesterase (SVPD), spleen phosphodiesterase (SPD) and nuclease P1. SVPD led to formation of a dinucleotide, 5'-d(Np[Sp])-3' (N = any nucleotide) that included the undamaged nucleotide on the 5' side of dSp as the final product. This dinucleotide was a substrate for both SPD and nuclease P1. A kinetic study of the activity of SPD and nuclease P1 showed a sequence dependence on the nucleotide 5' to the lesion with rates in the order dG>dA>dT>dC. In addition, the two diastereomers of dSp underwent digestion at significantly different rates with dSp1>dSp2; nuclease P1 hydrolyzed the 5'-d(Np[Sp1])-3' dinucleotide two- to six-fold faster than the corresponding 5'-d(Np[Sp2])-3', while for SPD the difference was two-fold. These rates are chemically reasoned based on dSp diastereomer differences in the syn vs. anti glycosidic bond orientation. A method for the complete digestion of dSp-containing ODNs is also outlined based on treatment with nuclease P1 and SVPD. These findings have significant impact on the development of methods to detect dSp levels in cellular DNA.