Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)

Nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1 following long-term fractionated exposures to low-dose ionizing radiation in normal human diploid cells.

PMID 24583467


Cyclin D1 is a mitogenic sensor that responds to growth signals from the extracellular environment and regulates the G 1-to-S cell cycle transition. When cells are acutely irradiated with a single dose of 10 Gy, cyclin D1 is degraded, causing cell cycle arrest at the G 1/S checkpoint. In contrast, cyclin D1 accumulates in human tumor cells that are exposed to long-term fractionated radiation (0.5 Gy/fraction of X-rays). In this study we investigated the effect of fractionated low-dose radiation exposure on cyclin D1 localization in 3 strains of normal human fibroblasts. To specifically examine the nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1, cells were treated with a hypotonic buffer containing detergent to remove cytoplasmic cyclin D1. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunofluorescence was used to identify cells in S phase. With this approach, we observed S-phase nuclear retention of cyclin D1 following low-dose fractionated exposures, and found that cyclin D1 nuclear retention increased with exposure time. Cells that retained nuclear cyclin D1 were more likely to have micronuclei than non-retaining cells, indicating that the accumulation of nuclear cyclin D1 was associated with genomic instability. Moreover, inhibition of the v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) pathway facilitated cyclin D1 degradation and eliminated cyclin D1 nuclear retention in cells exposed to fractionated radiation. Thus, cyclin D1 may represent a useful marker for monitoring long-term effects associated with exposure to low levels of radiation.