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Journal of medical virology

Coxsackievirus B1 reveals strain specific differences in plasmacytoid dendritic cell mediated immunogenicity.


PMID 24616040

Abstract

Enterovirus infections are usually mild but can also cause severe illnesses and play a role in chronic diseases, such as cardiomyopathies and type 1 diabetes. Host response to the invading virus can markedly modulate the course of the infection, and this response varies between individuals due to the polymorphism of immune response genes. However, it is currently not known if virus strains also differ in their ability to stimulate the host immune system. Coxsackievirus B1 (CBV1) causes severe epidemics in young infants and it has recently been connected with type 1 diabetes in seroepidemiological studies. This study evaluated the ability of different field isolates of CBV1 to induce innate immune responses in PBMCs. CBV1 strains differed markedly in their capacity to induce innate immune responses. Out of the 18 tested CBV1 strains two induced exceptionally strong alpha interferon (IFN-α) response in PBMC cultures. The responding cell type was found to be the plasmacytoid dendritic cell. Such a strong innate immune response was accompanied by an up-regulation of several other immune response genes and secretion of cytokines, which modulate inflammation, and adaptive immune responses. These results suggest that enterovirus-induced immune activation depends on the virus strain. It is possible that the immunotype of the virus modulates the course of the infection and plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic immune-mediated enterovirus diseases.

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