The Journal of endocrinology

Uptake and metabolic effects of 3-iodothyronamine in hepatocytes.

PMID 24627446


3-Iodothyronamine (T1AM) is an endogenous relative of thyroid hormone with profound metabolic effects. In different experimental models, T1AM increased blood glucose, and it is not clear whether this effect is entirely accounted by changes in insulin and/or glucagone secretion. Thus, in the present work, we investigated the uptake of T1AM by hepatocytes, which was compared with the uptake of thyroid hormones, and the effects of T1AM on hepatic glucose and ketone body production. Two different experimental models were used: HepG2 cells and perfused rat liver. Thyronines and thyronamines (T0AMs) were significantly taken up by hepatocytes. In HepG2 cells exposed to 1 μM T1AM, at the steady state, the cellular concentration of T1AM exceeded the medium concentration by six- to eightfold. Similar accumulation occurred with 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and thyroxine. Liver experiments confirmed significant T1AM uptake. T1AM was partly catabolized and the major catabolites were 3-iodothyroacetic acid (TA1) (in HepG2 cells) and T0AM (in liver). In both preparations, infusion with 1 μM T1AM produced a significant increase in glucose production, if adequate gluconeogenetic substrates were provided. This effect was dampened at higher concentration (10 μM) or in the presence of the amine oxidase inhibitor iproniazid, while TA1 was ineffective, suggesting that T1AM may have a direct gluconeogenetic effect. Ketone body release was significantly increased in liver, while variable results were obtained in HepG2 cells incubated with gluconeogenetic substrates. These findings are consistent with the stimulation of fatty acid catabolism, and a shift of pyruvate toward gluconeogenesis. Notably, these effects are independent from hormonal changes and might have physiological and pathophysiological importance.