Microbes and infection

Comparison of human saliva and synthetic histo-blood group antigens usage as ligands in norovirus-like particle binding and blocking assays.

PMID 24631874


Blocking of norovirus-like particle binding to their cellular ligands, histo-blood group antigens with immune sera, is considered a surrogate norovirus neutralization assay. We compared human secretor positive saliva and synthetic biotinylated carbohydrates as a source of histo-blood group antigens in binding and blocking assays. Six norovirus capsid-derived virus-like particles belonging to genogroup I (GI-1-2001 and GI-3-2002) and genogroup II (GII-4-1999, GII-4-2010 New Orleans, GII-4-2012 Sydney and GII-12-1998) noroviruses were produced by a recombinant baculovirus expression system and binding profile to saliva type A, B and O and to synthetic antigens (A trimer, B trimer, H type 1, H type 3, Lewis(a) and Lewis(b)) was identified. Good correlation between virus-like particle binding to saliva type A and synthetic A trimer (r = 0.66, p < 0.05) and saliva type B and synthetic B trimer (r = 0.75, p < 0.05) was observed. Binding of each norovirus virus-like particle to the selected histo-blood group antigens was blocked by convalescent sera from NoV-infected subjects or type-specific mouse antisera. Our results support the use of either saliva or synthetic antigens in blocking assay to measure the ability of norovirus antisera to block virus-like particle binding to the carbohydrate ligands.