Journal of clinical laboratory analysis

Development of a clinical chemiluminescent immunoassay for serum GPC3 and simultaneous measurements alone with AFP and CK19 in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

PMID 24687454


Glypican-3 (GPC3) is an oncofetal antigen that shows great promise as a biomarker for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but there is no reliable kit that can be used to detect it in clinics. The aim of this study is to develop a stable performance kit for GPC3 detection in clinics. The paired antibodies were identified through cycle-screening methods based on our previous research. Then, a double antibodies sandwich chemiluminescent immunoassay for detecting serum GPC3 was developed. The performance of the developed GPC3 diagnostic kit was evaluated by detecting the concentration of serum GPC3 and assessing its single or combined use with alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and cytokeratin 19 fragment (CK19) for HCC diagnosis. The assay demonstrated a linear range of 10-800xa0ng/ml, the cross-reactivity rate at 0.018% (AFP), 0.020% (carcino-embryonic antigen), and 0.021% (CK19), respectively. The minimum detectable concentration was 0.05xa0ng/ml; the intraassay coefficient of variation (CV) and interassay CV were both less than 10%, with good stability and reproducibility. GPC3 has a high sensitivity (54.2%) and specificity (99.4%) in diagnosing HCC. The level of GPC3 in HCC was robust higher than that in healthy or other liver diseases' sera (108.67 ± 230.04xa0ng/ml vs. 3.99 ± 7.68xa0ng/ml). The diagnostic sensitivity of GPC3 single or combined with CK19 and AFP for HCC was evaluated, and the rates were 54.2 and 90.6%, respectively. An applicable chemiluminescent immunoassay with stable performance against GPC3 in diagnosing HCC has been established and the combination of GPC3 with CK19 and AFP could improve the diagnostic sensitivity for HCC.