Mucosal immunology

Human colostrum oligosaccharides modulate major immunologic pathways of immature human intestine.

PMID 24691111


The immature neonatal intestinal immune system hyperreacts to newly colonizing unfamiliar bacteria. The hypothesis that human milk oligosaccharides from colostrum (cHMOSs) can directly modulate the signaling pathways of the immature mucosa was tested. Modulation of cytokine immune signaling by HMOSs was measured ex vivo in intact immature (fetal) human intestinal mucosa. From the genes whose transcription was modulated by cHMOSs, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified networks controlling immune cell communication, intestinal mucosal immune system differentiation, and homeostasis. cHMOSs attenuate pathogen-associated molecular pattern-stimulated acute phase inflammatory cytokine protein levels (interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/2 and IL-1β), while elevating cytokines involved in tissue repair and homeostasis. In all, 3'-, 4-, and 6'-galactosyllactoses of cHMOSs account for specific immunomodulation of polyinosinic:polycytodylic acid-induced IL-8 levels. cHMOSs attenuate mucosal responses to surface inflammatory stimuli during early development, while enhancing signals that support maturation of the intestinal mucosal immune system.