Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

Bone tissue engineering by way of allograft revitalization: mechanistic and mechanical investigations using a porcine model.

PMID 24742484


"Allograft revitalization" is a process in which cadaveric bone is used to generate well-vascularized living bone. We had previously found that porcine allograft hemimandibles filled with autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2-soaked absorbable collagen sponge (rhBMP-2/ACS) were completely replaced by vascularized bone, provided the construct had been incubated within a periosteal envelope. The present study sought to deepen our understanding of allograft revitalization by investigating the individual contributions of ASCs and rhBMP-2 in the process and the mechanical properties of the revitalized allograft. Porcine allograft hemimandible constructs were implanted bilaterally into rib periosteal envelopes in 8 pigs. To examine the contributions of ASCs and rhBMP-2, the following groups were assessed: group 1, periosteum alone; group 2, periosteum+ASCs; group 3, periosteum+rhBMP-2/ACS; and group 4, periosteum+ASCs+rhBMP-2/ACS. After 8 weeks, the allograft constructs were harvested for micro-computed tomography (CT) and histologic analyses and 3-point bending to assess the strength. On harvesting, the constructs receiving rhBMP-2/ACS had significantly greater bone shown by micro-CT than those receiving periosteum only (51,463 vs. 34,310 mm3; P = .031). The constructs receiving ASCs had increased bone compared to group 1 (periosteum only), although not significantly (P = .087). The combination of rhBMP-2/ACS with ASCs produced bone (50,399 mm3) equivalent to that of the constructs containing rhBMP-2/ACS only. The 3-point bending tests showed no differences between the 4 groups and a nonimplanted allograft or native mandible (P = .586), suggesting the absence of decreased strength of the allograft bone when revitalized. These data have shown that rhBMP-2/ACS significantly stimulates new bone formation by way of allograft revitalization and that the revitalized allograft has equivalent mechanical strength to native bone.