Clinical and experimental immunology

Rebamipide attenuates autoimmune arthritis severity in SKG mice via regulation of B cell and antibody production.

PMID 24749771


Oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated the therapeutic potential of rebamipide, a gastroprotective agent with a property of reactive oxygen species scavenger, on the development of inflammatory polyarthritis and the pathophysiological mechanisms by which rebamipide might confer anti-arthritic effects in SKG mice, an animal model of RA. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of rebamipide attenuated the severity of clinical and histological arthritis. Rebampide treatment reduced the number of T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2, Th17, inducible T cell co-stimulator (ICOS)(+) follicular helper T (Tfh) transitional type (T2) and mature B cells in the spleen, but increased the number of regulatory T (Treg ), CD19(+) CD1d(high) CD5(high) , CD19(+) CD25(high) forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(+) regulatory B (Breg ) cells, memory B cells, and transitional type 1 (T1) B cells. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed significantly decreased populations of FAS(+) GL-7(+) germinal centre B cells and B220(-) CD138(+) plasma cells in the spleens of rebamipide-treated SKG mice compared to controls. Rebamipide decreased germinal centre B cells and reciprocally induced Breg cells in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Rebamipide-induced Breg cells had more suppressive capacity in relation to T cell proliferation and also inhibited Th17 differentiation from murine CD4(+) T cells. Together, these data show that i.p. administration of rebamipide suppresses arthritis severity by inducing Breg and Treg cells and suppressing Tfh and Th17 cells in a murine model of RA.