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PloS one

The differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells towards a urothelium-like phenotype in vitro and the dynamic temporal changes of related cytokines by both paracrine and autocrine signal regulation.


PMID 24752317

Abstract

To investigate the differentiation ability of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) towards urothelium-like cells in vitro and the dynamic changes of related cytokines and cytokine receptors in the culture medium. The ASCs were induced using both conditioned media (CM) and the transwell co-culture system with an immortalized urothelium cell line (SV-HUC-1,HUC) for 21 days. Protein and mRNA expression of the mature urothelium specific markers uroplakin-IA (UP-1A) and uroplakin-II (UP-II) were detected by immunofluorescence and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. Array detection was used to screen 41 cytokines and receptors in the upper medium of urothelium, non-induced ASCs and urothelium-induced ASCs at three time points, early (12 hours), intermediate (7 days) and late (21 days). After induction for 7 days, the ASCs grown in both CM and transwell co-culture system expressed uroplakin-IA (13.54±2.00%; 17.28±1.84%) and uroplakin-II (19.49±1.73%; 13.98±1.47%). After induction for 21 days, ASCs grown in co-culture had significantly increased expression of uroplakin-IA (48.03±1.25%; 49.57±2.85%) and uroplakin-II (45.38±2.50%; 46.58±1.95%). In the upper medium of urothelium, 28 cytokines and 8 cytokine receptors had significantly higher expression than the counterpart of non-induced ASCs. After 7 days induction, the expression of 22 cytokines and 8 cytokine receptors was significantly elevated in the upper medium of induced ASCs compared to non-induced ASCs. At the early and intermediate time points, ASCs secreted high levels of relative cytokines and soluble receptors, but their expressions decreased significantly at the late time point. The adipose-derived stem cells have the potential to be differentiated into urothelium-like cells in vitro by both CM and transwell co-culture system with mature urothelium. Numerous cytokines and receptors were involved in the differentiation process with dynamic temporal changes by both paracrine and autocrine signal regulation. Further studies should be carried out to determine the detailed mechanism of cytokines and receptors and to enhance the urothelium differentiation efficiency of ASCs.