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The influence of ezetimibe on classical and alternative activation pathways of monocytes/macrophages isolated from patients with hypercholesterolemia.

PMID 24781446


Macrophages are crucial for the development of atherosclerotic plaques. Classically activated macrophages contribute to plaque growth and destabilization, while alternatively activated macrophages increase plaque stability. Here, we assessed the influence of ezetimibe on the activation of monocyte-derived macrophages isolated from patients with hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol 263.4 ± 12.5 mg/dl, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 179.7 ± 11.3 mg/dl, triglycerides 123.9 ± 11.4 mg/dl). Cells were stimulated with 1 μg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or 1 μg/ml LPS plus 22 ng/ml ezetimibe. Control cells were left unstimulated. The expression of classical activation markers (interleukin-1β (IL-1β), nitric oxide (NO), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)) and alternative activation markers (mannose receptor (MR) and arginase-1 (Arg1)) was determined after 48 h. The employed analytical methods included enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Griess reaction, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. LPS increased the secretion of IL-1β and NO and the expression of iNOS mRNA, iNOS protein, and Arg1 protein. It did not affect the expression of MR or Arg1 mRNA. In comparison to LPS stimulation, co-stimulation with ezetimibe decreased the secretion of IL-1β and the expression of iNOS mRNA and protein, while it increased MR mRNA and protein expression. Co-stimulation with ezetimibe did not change the secretion of NO or the expression of Arg1. The results suggest that ezetimibe in inflammatory in vitro conditions contributes to the suppression of classical and promotion of the alternative macrophage activation.

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2-Azetidinone, 98%