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JAMA ophthalmology

Efficacy and safety of antifungal additives in Optisol-GS corneal storage medium.


PMID 24789459

Abstract

Optisol-GS, the most common corneal storage medium in the United States, contains antibacterial but no antifungal supplementation. Most postkeratoplasty endophthalmitis and keratitis cases are now of a fungal origin. To assess the efficacy and safety of voriconazole and amphotericin B in reducing Candida species contamination of Optisol-GS under normal storage conditions. In vitro laboratory study using 15 pairs of research-grade donor corneas and 20-mL vials of Optisol-GS. Twenty vials of Optisol-GS were supplemented with either voriconazole at 1×, 10×, 25×, or 50× minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) or amphotericin B at 0.25×, 0.5×, 1×, or 10× MIC. Known concentrations of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata were each added to a set of vials. Safety studies were performed by separating 15 pairs of donor corneas into unsupplemented Optisol-GS or Optisol-GS plus an antifungal. Efficacy outcomes were viable fungal colony counts determined from samples taken on days 2, 7, and 14 immediately after removal from refrigeration and after warming to room temperature for 2 hours. Safety outcomes included percentage of intact epithelium and endothelial cell density on days 0, 7, and 14, as well as percentage of nonviable endothelial cells by vital dye staining on day 14. Growth of C albicans and C glabrata was observed in all voriconazole-supplemented vials. In contrast, there was no growth of either organism in amphotericin B-supplemented vials, except at 0.25× and 0.5× MIC on day 2, when viable counts of C glabrata were reduced by 99% and 96%, respectively. Compared with paired controls, with the exception of Optisol-GS plus amphotericin B at 10× MIC, donor corneas in supplemented Optisol-GS appeared to have no difference in endothelial cell density reduction, percentage of intact epithelium, or percentage of nonviable endothelial cells. The addition of amphotericin B to Optisol-GS may significantly improve activity against contamination with Candida species, the primary cause of fungal infection after corneal transplantation. This study found significant endothelial toxic effects at the maximal concentration of amphotericin B.