American journal of physiology. Renal physiology

Combination of bladder ultrasonography and novel cystometry method in mice reveals rapid decrease in bladder capacity and compliance in LPS-induced cystitis.

PMID 24808533


Various animal models have been used in research into bladder dysfunction, and in vivo cystometry is a common method to analyze bladder function in animals. However, it is rather difficult to perform reliably in small animals. Transabdominal bladder ultrasonography combined with cystometry in urethane-anesthetized mice have revealed physical inhibition of bladder wall movement by a bladder catheter conventionally placed in the bladder apex. For reliable evaluation of mouse lower urinary tract function, we established a novel cystometry method in which a catheter was placed in the bladder anterior wall, in combination with bladder ultrasonography. This new method allowed the bladder to be well distended (i.e., larger maximum bladder capacity, lower pressure threshold, higher voided volume, and higher bladder compliance compared with conventional methods), which reflected more spontaneous voiding than conventional cystometry methods. We also demonstrated the usefulness of bladder ultrasonography for analysis of mouse bladder function, especially bladder dynamics, maximum bladder capacity, and post-voiding residual volume. We analyzed bladder functional changes in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cystitis by combining bladder ultrasonography and this new cystometry method. Bladder ultrasonography revealed a rapid decrease in bladder capacity, and cystometry showed a rapid decrease in voided volume due to intravesical LPS instillation. This new cystometry method also revealed a rapid decrease in bladder compliance caused by LPS instillation, which was not detectable by conventional methods. The combination of ultrasonography and the new cystometry method may become a powerful tool for analysis of mouse bladder function and could contribute to the development of new treatments for bladder dysfunction.

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Urethane, ≥99%
Urethane, ≥99.0% (GC)
Urethane, analytical standard