Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine

PGE2 signaling and its biosynthesis-related enzymes in cholangiocarcinoma progression.

PMID 24839005


Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) involves in progression of various chronic inflammation-related cancers including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). This study aimed to determine the role of PGE2 signaling, its biosynthesis-related enzymes in a clinical prognosis, and their targeted inhibition in CCA progression. The immunohistochemical staining of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, mPGES-1, EP1, and EP4 was examined in CCA tissues, and their expressions were compared with clinicopathological parameters. The effect of PGE2 on levels of its signaling molecules was examined in CCA cell lines using proteome profiler array. The suppression of mPGES-1 using a small-molecule inhibitor (CAY10526) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) was determined for growth and migration ability in CCA cells. The results indicated that strong expressions of COX-1, COX-2, mPGES-1, EP1, and EP4 were found in CCA tissues as 87.5, 47.5, 52.5, 55, and 80 % of frequencies, respectively. High mPGES-1 expression was significantly correlated with tumor stages III-IV (p = 0.001), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.004), shorter survival (p = 0.009), and prognostic indicator of CCA patients (HR = 2.512, p = 0.041). Expressions of COX-1, COX-2, and EP receptors did not correlate with data tested from patients. PGE2 markedly enhanced protein levels of integrinα6, VE-cadherin, Jagged1, and Notch3, and CAY10526 suppressed those protein levels as well as PGE2 production in CCA cells. CAY10526 and siRNA mPGES-1 markedly suppressed mPGES-1 protein levels, growth, and migration abilities of CCA cell lines. In conclusion, PGE2 signaling strongly promotes CCA progression. Therefore, inhibition of PGE2 synthesis by suppression of its biosynthesis-related enzymes could be useful for prevention and treatment of CCA.