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Infection and immunity

Francisella tularensis LVS induction of prostaglandin biosynthesis by infected macrophages requires specific host phospholipases and lipid phosphatases.


PMID 24866789

Abstract

Francisella tularensis induces the synthesis of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) by infected macrophages to alter host immune responses, thus providing a survival advantage to the bacterium. We previously demonstrated that PGE(2) synthesis by F. tularensis-infected macrophages requires cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA(2)), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES1). During inducible PGE(2) synthesis, cPLA(2) hydrolyzes arachidonic acid (AA) from cellular phospholipids to be converted to PGE(2). However, in F. tularensis-infected macrophages we observed a temporal disconnect between Ser505-cPLA(2) phosphorylation (a marker of activation) and PGE(2) synthesis. These results suggested to us that cPLA(2) is not responsible for the liberation of AA to be converted into PGE(2) by F. tularensis-infected macrophages. Utilizing small-molecule inhibitors, we demonstrated that phospholipase D and diacylglycerol lipase were required for providing AA for PGE(2) biosynthesis. cPLA(2), on the other hand, was required for macrophage cytokine responses to F. tularensis. We also demonstrated for the first time that lipin-1 and PAP2a contribute to macrophage inflammation in response to F. tularensis. Our results identify both an alternative pathway for inducible PGE(2) synthesis and a role for lipid-modifying enzymes in the regulation of macrophage inflammatory function.

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