Journal of ethnopharmacology

Mirabijalone E: a novel rotenoid from Mirabilis himalaica inhibited A549 cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

PMID 24882730


The roots of Mirabilis himalaica have been used in Tibetan folk medicine for treatment of uterine cancer, nephritis edematous, renal calculus and arthrodynia. In our previous work, the ethanol extract of roots had shown potent cytotoxicity against human cancer cells. However, no information is available on the antitumor effect of Mirabilis himalaica. The aim of the present study was to investigate the active constituents guided by bioassay and evaluate the related antitumor efficacy in vitro and in vivo. The active subextract (ethyl acetate) was subjected to successive chemical separation using a combination of silica gel, LH-20 chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC. The structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry. Three human cancer cell lines, A549, HepG2 and HeLa were used for in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of all isolated compounds by MTT-assay. Then, the potent and novel compound mirabijalone E was employed to the mechanism study againstA549 cells. BrdU immunofluorescence, soft agar assay and cell cycle analysis were employed to detect the cell proliferation effects. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assay was used for examining apoptotic effects. Expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins were determined by western blot assay. in vivo tumorigenic assay was used to evaluate the xenograft tumor growth treated with mirabijalone E. One new rotenoid compound, mirabijalone E, together with eight known rotenoids was isolated from Mirabilis himalaica. Mirabijalone E, 9-O-methyl-inone B, boeravinone C and boeravinone H exhibited cytotoxicity against A 549 and HeLa cells. Further study on mirabijalone E was carried out in vitro and in vivo. Mirabijalone E inhibited A549 cells growth in a time and dose-dependent manner, which arrested cell cycle in S phase. Mechanistically, mirabijalone E treatment resulted in the increase of Bax expression level, the decrease of Bcl-2 level and the activation of caspase-3, which suggested the activation of apoptosis cascades. Consequently, the xenograft treated with mirabijalone E showed markedly suppressed tumor growth. The result suggested that mirabijalone E, together with active compounds, 9-O-methyl-4-hydroxyboeravinone B, boeravinone C and boeravinone H could be a promising candidate for cancer therapy.