International journal of oncology

Cytochrome P450 3A-mediated metabolism of the topoisomerase I inhibitor 9-aminocamptothecin: impact on cancer therapy.

PMID 24889073


The metabolism of 9-aminocamptothecin (9-AC) was investigated in human and rat liver microsomes. In both species 9-AC was almost exclusively biotransformed to dihydroxy-9-AC (M1) and monohydroxy-9-AC (M2). The enzymatic efficiencies of the formation of M1 and M2 (V(max)/K(m)) were 1.7- and 2.7‑fold higher in rat than in human liver microsomes indicating species-related differences in 9-AC hydroxylation. Incubation in the presence of human recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes demonstrated that the formation of M1 and M2 is mainly catalyzed by CYP3A4 and only to a minor extent by extrahepatic CYP1A1. The predominant role of CYP3A4 was further supported by a dramatic inhibition of metabolite formation in the presence of the CYP3A4 substrates troleandomycin and ketoconazole. Experiments conducted in isolated perfused rat livers further demonstrated that biliary excretion of 9-AC, M1 and M2 during 60 min of perfusion was pronounced and accounted for 17.7±2.59, 0.05±0.01 and 2.75±0.14% of total 9-AC applied to the liver, respectively. In summary, this study established that CYP3A-dependent hydroxylation is the main metabolic pathway for 9-AC in rat and human liver, which have to be taken into consideration during cancer therapy of patients.