European journal of clinical investigation

Visceral leishmaniasis is associated with marked changes in serum lipid profile.

PMID 24920396


Infection is often accompanied by lipid profile alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipid profile changes in patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We included 15 patients [10 men, aged 50 (24-82) years old] with VL and 15 age- and sex-matched controls. The parameters estimated at diagnosis and 4 months after VL resolution were total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoproteins (apo) A-Ι, B, E, C-II, C-III, lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], activities of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), HDL-Lp-PLA2, PON1 (paraoxonase 1) and cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP), cytokines (interleukins 1β and 6 and tumour necrosis factor α), as well as LDL subfraction profile. Patients with VL at diagnosis had lower levels of TC, LDL-C, apoΒ and Lp(a), and higher TG and apoE concentrations compared with 4 months after VL resolution. The activities of Lp-PLA2, HDL-Lp-PLA2 and ΡΟΝ1 were reduced at diagnosis compared with post-treatment values. VL patients had decreased levels of both large and sdLDL-C at diagnosis; no effect on mean LDL particle size was observed. Patients with VL at diagnosis had decreased HDL-C and apoA-I concentrations; these increased 4 months after VL resolution, but remained lower compared with controls. The activities of HDL-Lp-PLA2 and PON1 remained lower in patients after VL resolution compared with controls. Patients with VL exhibit increased TG levels and decreased cholesterol subclasses at diagnosis. HDL-C, apoA-I and associated enzymes remain lower 4 months after VL resolution compared with controls.