Integrated analysis of chronic lipotoxicity on muscle metabolism and stress and its reversal by antioxidants.

PMID 24936385


Apart from elevated glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol, elevated levels of serum free-fatty acid (FFA) are observed in diabetic patients. Increased FFA load can cause multiple dysregulation which are collectively known as lipotoxicity. Impacts of FFA induced lipotoxicity were evaluated on various cellular responses of metabolism and stress in skeletal muscle myotubes. Under lipotoxicity, oxidative capacity of C2C12 myotubes was reduced and decreased levels ATP and NAD were observed. Lipotoxicity augmented non-oxidative disposal of metabolites in terms of lactate release, IMTG and ceramide synthesis. Concomitantly, insulin resistance was also observed. These impacts were in conjunction with increased cellular stress, inflammation, proteolysis and apoptosis. Quenching of lipotoxicity mediated oxidative stress by antioxidant reverted its deleterious impacts and restored insulin stimulated glucose uptake. In conclusion, the in vitro lipotoxicity makes a system which resembles in vivo pathology of muscle as seen in diabetic patients and represents an integrated perspective of lipotoxicity on various parameters of metabolism and stress.