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PloS one

In older men, lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with reduced incidence of prostate, but not colorectal or lung cancer.


PMID 24949795

Abstract

Prostate, colorectal and lung cancers are common in men. In this study, we aimed to determine whether vitamin D status is associated with the incidence of these cancers in older men. Prospective cohort study. 4208 older men aged 70-88 years in Perth, Western Australia. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration was measured by immunoassay. New diagnoses of prostate, colorectal and lung cancers were determined via electronic record linkage. During a mean follow-up of 6.7±1.8 years, there were 315, 117 and 101 new diagnoses of prostate, colorectal and lung cancer. In multivariate competing risks proportional hazards models, every 10 nmol/l decrease in 25(OH)D concentration was associated with a 4% reduction in prostate cancer incidence (sub-hazard ratio [SHR] 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92-1.00). Every halving of 25(OH)D concentration was associated with a 21% reduction in incident prostate cancer in multivariate analysis (SHR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63-0.99). Following exclusion of prostate cancer cases diagnosed within 3 years of blood sampling, low 25(OH)D <50 nmol/l was associated with lower incident prostate cancer, and higher 25(OH)D >75 nmol/l was associated with higher incidence, when compared to the reference range 50-75 nmol/l, respectively (p = 0.027). Significant associations were also observed when 25(OH)D was modeled as a quantitative variable. No associations were observed between plasma 25(OH)D concentration with incidence of colorectal or lung cancer. Lower levels of vitamin D may reduce prostate cancer risk in older men. By contrast, levels of vitamin D did not predict incidence of colorectal or lung cancers. Further studies are needed to determine whether a causal relationship exists between vitamin D and prostate cancer in ageing men.