Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research

miR-409-3p/-5p promotes tumorigenesis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and bone metastasis of human prostate cancer.

PMID 24963047


miR-409-3p/-5p is a miRNA expressed by embryonic stem cells, and its role in cancer biology and metastasis is unknown. Our pilot studies demonstrated elevated miR-409-3p/-5p expression in human prostate cancer bone metastatic cell lines; therefore, we defined the biologic impact of manipulation of miR-409-3p/-5p on prostate cancer progression and correlated the levels of its expression with clinical human prostate cancer bone metastatic specimens. miRNA profiling of a prostate cancer bone metastatic epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) cell line model was performed. A Gleason score human tissue array was probed for validation of specific miRNAs. In addition, genetic manipulation of miR-409-3p/-5p was performed to determine its role in tumor growth, EMT, and bone metastasis in mouse models. Elevated expression of miR-409-3p/-5p was observed in bone metastatic prostate cancer cell lines and human prostate cancer tissues with higher Gleason scores. Elevated miR-409-3p expression levels correlated with progression-free survival of patients with prostate cancer. Orthotopic delivery of miR-409-3p/-5p in the murine prostate gland induced tumors where the tumors expressed EMT and stemness markers. Intracardiac inoculation (to mimic systemic dissemination) of miR-409-5p inhibitor-treated bone metastatic ARCaPM prostate cancer cells in mice led to decreased bone metastasis and increased survival compared with control vehicle-treated cells. miR-409-3p/-5p plays an important role in prostate cancer biology by facilitating tumor growth, EMT, and bone metastasis. This finding bears particular translational importance as miR-409-3p/-5p appears to be an attractive biomarker and/or possibly a therapeutic target to treat bone metastatic prostate cancer.