Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology

Activation of ATP secretion via volume-regulated anion channels by sphingosine-1-phosphate in RAW macrophages.

PMID 24965069


We report the activation of outwardly rectifying anion currents by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. The S1P-induced current is mainly carried by anions, because the reversal potential of the current was shifted by replacement of extracellular Cl(-) by glutamate(-) but not when extracellular Na(+) was substituted by Tris(+). The inhibition of the current by hypertonic extracellular or hypotonic intracellular solution as well as the inhibitory effects of NPPB, tamoxifen, and glibenclamide indicates that the anion current is mediated by volume-regulated anion channels (VRAC). The S1P effect was blocked by intracellular GDPβS and W123, which points to signaling via the S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1) and G proteins. As cytochalasin D diminished the action of S1P, we conclude that the actin cytoskeleton is involved in the stimulation of VRAC. S1P and hypotonic extracellular solution induced secretion of ATP from the macrophages, which in both cases was blocked in a similar way by typical VRAC blockers. We suppose that the S1P-induced ATP secretion in macrophages via activation of VRAC constitutes a functional link between sphingolipid and purinergic signaling in essential processes such as inflammation and migration of leukocytes as well as phagocytosis and the killing of intracellular bacteria.