Osteoarthritis and cartilage

Exaggerated inflammatory environment decreases BMP-2/ACS-induced ectopic bone mass in a rat model: implications for clinical use of BMP-2.

PMID 24981632


Numerous recent reports have observed a low osteoinductive efficacy property of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and disappointing long-term outcomes in clinical cases. An alternative hypothesis, that these observations are caused by an exaggerated inflammatory environment, needs experimental evidence. Thirty-seven Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were administrated with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections and BMP-2/absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) implantation to respectively mimic pre-operative and post-operative inflammatory responses. Blood samples and BMP-2/ACS implants were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), micro-computed tomography (μCT) and histological examination. LPS injections and BMP-2/ACS implantation provoked a significant elevation of inflammatory cytokines in serum and an obvious infiltration of inflammatory cells around BMP-2/ACS implants. The bone volume, mineral content and mineral density of the BMP-2/ACS implants from LPS-injected rats were significantly decreased, indicating that attenuated BMP-2-induced bone mass might be associated with down-regulated bone formation activity and up-regulated bone resorption activity. Furthermore, histological examination of the rhBMP-2/ACS implants showed a decreased expression of osteocalcin (OCN) and an increased number of osteoclasts in LPS-injected rats at 8 weeks; the expression level of bone turnover markers in serum and BMP-2/ACS implants revealed inhibited osteoblastogenesis activity and activated osteoclastogenesis activity in LPS-injected rats. Among the top three elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) showed a suppressive effect on BMP-2-induced osteoblastic differentiation inxa0vitro. These data indicatexa0that an exaggerated inflammatory environment may decrease BMP-2/ACS-induced bone mass inxa0vivo by suppressing BMP-2-induced osteoblastic differentiation and by increasing the number or activity of osteoclasts. The negative role of exaggerated inflammation deserves consideration for future clinical use of BMP-2 in inducing bone regeneration.