Rheumatology (Oxford, England)

Endogenous MMP-9 and not MMP-2 promotes rheumatoid synovial fibroblast survival, inflammation and cartilage degradation.

PMID 24982240


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) on the invasive characteristics of RA synovial fibroblasts. Synovial fibroblasts isolated from patients with RA or OA were treated with MMP small interfering RNA (siRNA), inhibitors and recombinant proteins or TNF-α, with or without cartilage explants. Cell viability and proliferation were measured by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) proliferation assays, respectively; apoptosis by an in situ cell death detection kit; migration and invasion by CytoSelect invasion assay, scratch migration and collagen gel assays; cartilage degradation by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue assay; and inflammatory mediators and MMPs by ELISA, western blot and zymography. MMP-2 was expressed by both OA and RA synovial fibroblasts, whereas only RA synovial fibroblasts expressed MMP-9. Suppressing MMP-2 or MMP-9 reduced RA synovial fibroblast proliferation equally. However, MMP-9 siRNA had greater effects compared with MMP-2 siRNA on promoting apoptosis and suppressing RA synovial fibroblast viability, migration and invasion. Suppression/inhibition of MMP-9 also decreased the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α, inactivated nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and suppressed RA synovial fibroblast-mediated cartilage degradation. In contrast, suppression/inhibition of MMP-2 stimulated TNF-α and IL-17 secretion and activated NF-κB, while recombinant MMP-2 (rMMP-2) inactivated NF-κB and suppressed RA synovial fibroblast-mediated cartilage degradation. Results using specific inhibitors and rMMPs provided supportive evidence for the siRNA results. Endogenous MMP-2 or MMP-9 contribute to RA synovial fibroblast survival, proliferation, migration and invasion, with MMP-9 having more potent effects. Additionally, MMP-9 stimulates RA synovial fibroblast-mediated inflammation and degradation of cartilage, whereas MMP-2 inhibits these parameters. Overall, our data indicate that MMP-9 derived from RA synovial fibroblasts may directly contribute to joint destruction in RA.