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Biochemistry

Why selenocysteine replaces cysteine in thioredoxin reductase: a radical hypothesis.


PMID 24999795

Abstract

Thioredoxin reductases, important biological redox mediators for two-electron transfers, contain either 2 cysteines or a cysteine (Cys) and a selenocysteine (Sec) at the active site. The incorporation of Sec is metabolically costly, and therefore surprising. We provide here a rationale: in the case of an accidental one-electron transfer to a S-S or a S-Se bond during catalysis, a thiyl or a selanyl radical, respectively would be formed. The thiyl radical can abstract a hydrogen from the protein backbone, which subsequently leads to the inactivation of the protein. In contrast, a selanyl radical will not abstract a hydrogen. Therefore, formation of Sec radicals in a GlyCysSecGly active site will less likely result in the destruction of a protein compared to a GlyCysCysGly active site.