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Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals

Effect of CYP2A6 genetic polymorphism on the metabolic conversion of tegafur to 5-fluorouracil and its enantioselectivity.


PMID 25002745

Abstract

Tegafur (FT), a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil, is a chiral molecule, a racemate of R- and S-isomers, and CYP2A6 plays an important role in the enantioselective metabolism of FT in human liver microsomes (R-FT > S-FT). This study examined the enantioselective metabolism of FT by microsomes prepared from Sf9 cells expressing wild-type CYP2A6 and its variants (CYP2A6*7, *8, *10, and *11) that are highly prevalent in the Asian population. We also investigated the metabolism of coumarin and nicotine, both CYP2A6 probe drugs, in these variants. Enzyme kinetic analyses showed that CYP2A6.7 (I471T) and CYP2A6.10 (I471T and R485L) had markedly lower Vmax values for both enantiomers than wild-type enzyme (CYP2A6.1) and other variant enzymes, whereas Km values were higher in most of the variant enzymes for both enantiomers than CYP2A6.1. The ratios of Vmax and Km values for R-FT to corresponding values for S-FT (R/S ratio) were similar among enzymes, indicating little difference in enantioselectivity among the wild-type and variant enzymes. Similarly, both CYP2A6.7 and CYP2A6.10 had markedly lower Vmax values for coumarin 7-hydroxylase and nicotine C-oxidase activities than CYP2A6.1 and other variant enzymes, whereas Km values were higher in most of the variant enzymes for both activities than CYP2A6.1. In conclusion, the amino acid substitutions in CYP2A6 variants generally resulted in lower affinity for substrates, while Vmax values were selectively reduced in CYP2A6.7 and CYP2A6.10. Consistent R/S ratios among CYP2A6.1 and variant enzymes indicated that the amino acid substitutions had little effect on enantioselectivity in the metabolism of FT.

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