Recombinant viral capsid protein VP1 suppresses lung cancer metastasis by inhibiting COX-2/PGE2 and MIG-7.

PMID 25004182


Recombinant capsid protein VP1 (rVP1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus binds to integrins to modulate Akt/GSK3-β signaling and suppress migration/invasion and metastasis of cancer cells, but the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. Here, we showed that the rVP1-mediated inhibition of Akt/GSK3-β signaling and cell migration/invasion was accompanied by downregulation in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PIP3), integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and IKK/NF-κB signaling as well as suppression of COX-2/PGE2 and MIG-7. Addition of PIP3 or overexpression of ILK reversed the rVP1-induced inhibition of IKK/NF-κB signaling, COX-2 and MIG-7. The rVP1-mediated downregulation of COX-2/PGE2 and MIG-7 led to not only attenuation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, MMP2 activity and invasion of lung cancer cells in vitro but also decreased tumor growth and metastasis of lung cancer in xenograft mice. Moreover, downregulation of COX-2/PGE2 and MIG-7 significantly prolonged the overall and disease-free survival of lung cancer-bearing mice. These results suggest that rVP1 inhibits cancer invasion/metastasis, partly if not mainly, via downregulating integrin/PI3K/Akt, ILK and IKK/NF-κB signaling to suppress expression of COX-2/PGE2 and MIG-7.