World journal of gastroenterology

Conventional, but not remote ischemic preconditioning, reduces iNOS transcription in liver ischemia/reperfusion.

PMID 25071345


To study the effects of preconditioning on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor transcription in rat liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Seventy-two male rats were randomized into 3 groups: the one-hour segmental ischemia (IRI, n = 24) group, the ischemic preconditioning (IPC, n = 24) group or the remote ischemic preconditioning (R-IPC, n = 24) group. The IPC and R-IPC were performed as 10 min of ischemia and 10 min of reperfusion. The iNOS and the IL-1 receptor mRNA in the liver tissue was analyzed with real time PCR. The total Nitrite and Nitrate (NOx) in continuously sampled microdialysate (MD) from the liver was analyzed. In addition, the NOx levels in the serum were analyzed. After 4 h of reperfusion, the iNOS mRNA was significantly higher in the R-IPC (ΔCt: 3.44 ± 0.57) group than in the IPC (ΔCt: 5.86 ± 0.82) group (P = 0.025). The IL-1 receptor transcription activity was reduced in the IPC group (ΔCt: 1.88 ± 0.53 to 4.81 ± 0.21), but not in the R-IPC group, during reperfusion (P = 0.027). In the MD, a significant drop in the NOx levels was noted in the R-IPC group (12.3 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.2 μmol/L) at the end of ischemia compared with the levels in early ischemia (P = 0.008). A similar trend was observed in the IPC group (11.8 ± 2.1 to 6.4 ± 1.5 μmol/L), although this difference was not statistically significant. The levels of NOx rose quickly during reperfusion in both groups. IPC, but not R-IPC, reduces iNOS and IL-1 receptor transcription during early reperfusion, indicating a lower inflammatory reaction. NOx is consumed in the ischemic liver lobe.