Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is independently associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease whereas leptin and adiponectin vary between genders.

PMID 25091195


Alterations of adipocytokine levels and clinical parameters in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are crucial for the prognosis and complications of the diseases. However, the key adipocytokines independently associated with NAFLD have not been identified, and we aimed to investigate them. This study was conducted on a consecutive series of 210 Taiwanese NAFLD patients and 420 sex- and age-matched controls. Fatty liver was diagnosed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The enrolled subjects' body mass indexes, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, blood pressure, metabolic syndrome (yes/no), alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio indexes, leptin, adiponectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were analyzed to determine their association with NAFLD. Univariate analysis showed that all of the aforementioned factors were associated with NAFLD, whereas multivariate analysis revealed that only PAI-1 (odds ratio: 1.39, P = 0.039) was independently associated with NAFLD. Subgroup analysis showed that females consistently had higher leptin (P < 0.001) and adiponectin (P < 0.001) levels than males, whereas their PAI-1 levels were similar. Males with NAFLD had higher leptin but lower adiponectin levels than their subgroup counterparts (all P < 0.001). Among the female subgroups, hyperleptinemia and hypoadiponectinemia were only observed in the NAFLD patients ≥ 45 years. PAI-1 is independently associated with NAFLD after adjusting for other factors, including leptin and adiponectin. Male and female NAFLD patients show distinct patterns of leptin and adiponectin alterations; special attention is required when evaluating these alterations in female NAFLD patients < 45 years.