Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)

Loading and release mechanism of red clover necrotic mosaic virus derived plant viral nanoparticles for drug delivery of doxorubicin.

PMID 25098668


Loading and release mechanisms of Red clover necrotic mosaicvirus (RCNMV) derived plant viral nanoparticle (PVN) are shown for controlled delivery of the anticancer drug, doxorubicin (Dox). Previous studies demonstrate that RCNMV's structure and unique response to divalent cation depletion and re-addition enables Dox infusion to the viral capsid through a pore formation mechanism. However, by controlling the net charge of RCNMV outer surface and accessibility of RCNMV interior cavity, tunable release of PVN is possible via manipulation of the Dox loading capacity and binding locations (external surface-binding or internal capsid-encapsulation) with the RCNMV capsid. Bimodal release kinetics is achieved via a rapid release of surface-Dox followed by a slow release of encapsulated Dox. Moreover, the rate of Dox release and the amount of released Dox increases with an increase in environmental pH or a decrease in concentration of divalent cations. This pH-responsive Dox release from PVN is controlled by Fickian diffusion kinetics where the release rate is dependent on the location of the bound or loaded active molecule. In summary, controllable release of Dox-loaded PVNs is imparted by 1) formulation conditions and 2) driven by the capsid's pH- and ion- responsive functions in a given environment.