PloS one

Toll-like receptor 9-activation during onset of myocardial ischemia does not influence infarct extension.

PMID 25126943


Myocardial infarction (MI) remains a major cause of death and disability worldwide, despite available reperfusion therapies. Inflammatory signaling is considered nodal in defining final infarct size. Activation of the innate immune receptor toll-like receptors (TLR) 9 prior to ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) reduces infarct size, but the consequence of TLR9 activation timed to the onset of ischemia is not known. The TLR9-agonist; CpG B was injected i.p. in C57BL/6 mice immediately after induction of ischemia (30 minutes). Final infarct size, as well as area-at-risk, was measured after 24 hours of reperfusion. CpG B injection resulted in a significant increase in circulating granulocytes and monocytes both in sham and I/R mice. Paradoxically, clear evidence of reduced cardiac infiltration of both monocytes and granulocytes could be demonstrated in I/R mice treated with CpG B (immunocytochemistry, myeloperoxidase activity and mRNA expression patterns). In addition, systemic TLR9 activation elicited significant alterations of cardiac inflammatory genes. Despite these biochemical and cellular changes, there was no difference in infarct size between vehicle and CpG B treated I/R mice. Systemic TLR9-stimulation upon onset of ischemia and subsequent reperfusion does not alter final infarct size despite causing clear alterations of both systemic and cardiac inflammatory parameters. Our results question the clinical usefulness of TLR9 activation during cardiac I/R.