Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology

Pharmacologic overview of systemic chlorogenic acid therapy on experimental wound healing.

PMID 25129377


Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a well-known natural antioxidant in human diet. To understand the effects of CGA on wound healing by enhancing antioxidant defense in the body, the present study sought to investigate the potential role of systemic CGA therapy on wound healing and oxidative stress markers of the skin. We also aimed to understand whether chronic CGA treatment has side effects on pivotal organs or rat bone marrow during therapy. Full-thickness experimental wounds were created on the backs of rats. CGA (25, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered intraperitoneally for 15 days. All rats were sacrificed on the 16th day. Biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical examinations were performed. Possible side effects were also investigated. The results suggested that CGA accelerated wound healing in a dose-dependent manner. CGA enhanced hydroxyproline content, decreased malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels. and elevated reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels in wound tissues. Epithelialization, angiogenesis, fibroblast proliferation, and collagen formation increased by CGA while polymorph nuclear leukocytes infiltration decreased. CGA modulated matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor-2 expression in biopsies. Otherwise, high dose of CGA increased lipid peroxidation of liver and kidney without affecting the heart and muscle samples. Chronic CGA increased micronuclei formation and induced cytotoxicity in the bone marrow. In conclusion, systemic CGA has beneficial effects in improving wound repair. Antioxidant, free radical scavenger, angiogenesis, and anti-inflammatory effects of CGA may ameliorate wound healing. High dose of CGA may induce side effects. In light of these observations, CGA supplementation or dietary CGA may have benefit on wound healing.