Journal of separation science

A new and fast strategy based on semiautomatic microextraction by packed sorbent followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography for the analysis of drugs and their metabolites in human urine.

PMID 25161119


A novel analytical approach has been developed for the determination of selected drugs (milrinone, enalapril, carvedilol, spironolactone, acenocumarol, ticlopidine, cilazapril) and their metabolites (2-oxoticlopidine, cilazaprilat, canrenone, 5'-hydroxycarvedilol, O-desmethyl-carvedilol, enalaprilat) in human urine, based on a miniaturized extraction technique; semiautomatic microextraction by packed sorbent, using a new digitally controlled syringe, followed by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography separation combined with UV detection. During method optimization, the extraction parameters as the type of sorbent material, type and volume of elution solution, number of extraction cycles, volume and pH of sample, type and volume of washing solution were studied. The chromatographic separation of the target analytes was performed with a core-shell analytical column using 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid in water and acetonitrile in gradient elution mode. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.016 to 0.045 μg/mL. Under the optimized conditions, extraction efficiency was higher than 70.1% for drugs and their metabolites. Due to its simplicity and speed, this method was successfully applied to the quantitation of selected compounds in urine samples.