British journal of anaesthesia

Sevoflurane post-conditioning increases nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor and haemoxygenase-1 expression via protein kinase C pathway in a rat model of transient global cerebral ischaemia.

PMID 25163467


The antioxidant mechanism of sevoflurane post-conditioning-induced neuroprotection remains unclear. We determined whether sevoflurane post-conditioning induces nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2, a master transcription factor regulating antioxidant defence genes) and haemoxygenase-1 (HO-1, an antioxidant enzyme) expression, and whether protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in Nrf2 activation, in a rat model of transient global cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Eighty-six rats were assigned to five groups: sham (n=6), control (n=20), sevoflurane post-conditioning (two cycles with 2 vol% sevoflurane inhalation for 10 min, n=20), chelerythrine (a PKC inhibitor; 5 mg kg(-1) i.v. administration, n=20), and sevoflurane post-conditioning plus chelerythrine (n=20). The levels of nuclear Nrf2 and cytoplasmic HO-1 were assessed 1 or 7 days after ischaemia (n=10 each, apart from the sham group, n=3). On day 1 but not day 7 post-ischaemia, Nrf2 and HO-1 expression were significantly higher in the sevoflurane post-conditioning group than in the control group. Chelerythrine administration reduced the elevated Nrf2 and HO-1 expression induced by sevoflurane post-conditioning. Sevoflurane post-conditioning increased Nrf2/HO-1 expression via PKC signalling in the early phase after transient global cerebral I/R injury, suggesting that activation of antioxidant enzymes may be responsible for sevoflurane post-conditioning-induced neuroprotection in the early phase after cerebral I/R injury.

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Y0001046 Sevoflurane, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard