Breast cancer research and treatment

JMJD2A-dependent silencing of Sp1 in advanced breast cancer promotes metastasis by downregulation of DIRAS3.

PMID 25193278


Specificity protein 1(Sp1) is a ubiquitous transcription factor and is highly expressed in breast cancer. However, its expression pattern and role in breast cancer progression remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine the expression pattern of Sp1 and determine its role in breast cancer progression. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on breast cancer tissues to reveal the expression pattern of Sp1. Spearman rank correlation was used for clinical statistics. Gene and protein expressions were monitored by IHC analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot. Wound-healing and Transwell assays were conducted to assess the role of Sp1 in breast cancer. Co-immunoprecipitation, deletion mutagenesis, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and dual luciferase reporter gene assays were used for investigation of the regulatory network. Sp1 expression was downregulated in late stage breast cancer and in highly invasive breast cancer cell lines. Expression of Sp1 was negatively correlated with TNM staging (P = 0.002) and metastasis status (P = 0.023). Overexpression of Sp1 inhibited breast cancer cell migratory and invasive abilities, whereas knockdown of GTP-binding RAS-like 3 (DIRAS3, also known as ARHI, NOEY2) attenuated the inhibitory effects. Moreover, re-expression of DIRAS3 abolished Sp1 knockdown-mediated cell migration and invasion. Jumonji domain containing 2A (JMJD2A) inhibited Sp1 autoregulation and explains Sp1 expression pattern in breast cancer. Sp1 negatively regulated breast cancer metastasis by transcriptional activation of DIRAS3. Inhibition of Sp1 autoregulation by JMJD2A contributed to Sp1 expression pattern in breast cancer. Our findings provided evidence that targeted therapy against Sp1 might be useful in early stage breast cancer. However, in late stages, development of Sp1 activator may be more promising for breast cancer treatments.