BMC cardiovascular disorders

Preoperative risk factor analysis of postoperative stroke after Cox-maze procedure with mitral valve repair.

PMID 25212180


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a life-threatening arrhythmia that carries the high risk of thromboembolic complication. Stroke often develops in patients who undergo successful Cox Maze procedure, despite the fact that the procedure has shown a high rate of success in sinus conversion from AF. This study examined the preoperative risk factors predictive of stroke following Cox Maze procedure in patients with mitral valve disease. 240 patients with the mean age of 57 years underwent Cox-Maze IV procedure with mitral valve repair from November 2007 through December 2010. All patients were available during the follow-up period with the mean duration of 23.6 months. This study excluded those patients who had undergone mitral valve replacement because of maintenance of warfarin medication Sixteen patients had an ischemic stroke. Of these sixteen patients, six had a transitional ischemic accident while the remaining ten had cerebral infarction. Twelve of sixteen showed sustained sinus rhythm, three showed AF and one had pacing rhythm. Univariate analysis showed that only preoperative stroke history was associated with postoperative stroke (p = 0.03). High CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc score, rheumatic etiology, large left atrium (LA), preoperative or postoperative LA thrombus, age, sex, hypertension, and concomitant surgery were not associated with predictive risks for stroke. In the group of patients who underwent the Cox-Maze procedure with mitral valve repair, having a stroke history was the only preoperative risk factor that could lead to a stroke event after surgery. Accordingly, patients with affliction of ischemic stroke, albeit sustained sinus rhythm, may require prophylactic anticoagulation.