Developmental biology

Role for endocytosis of a constitutively active GPCR (GPR185) in releasing vertebrate oocyte meiotic arrest.

PMID 25220151


Vertebrate oocytes are naturally arrested at prophase of meiosis I for sustained periods of time before resuming meiosis in a process called oocyte maturation that prepares the egg for fertilization. Members of the constitutively active GPR3/6/12 family of G-protein coupled receptors represent important mediators of meiotic arrest. In the frog oocyte the GPR3/12 homolog GPRx (renamed GPR185) has been shown to sustain meiotic arrest by increasing intracellular cAMP levels through GαSβγ. Here we show that GPRx is enriched at the cell membrane (~80%), recycles through an endosomal compartment at steady state, and loses its ability to signal once trapped intracellularly. Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation is associated with significant internalization of both endogenous and overexpressed GPRx. Furthermore, a GPRx mutant that does not internalize in response to progesterone is significantly more efficient than wild-type GPRx at blocking oocyte maturation. Collectively our results argue that internalization of the constitutively active GPRx is important to release oocyte meiotic arrest.