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Vaccine

HBHA vaccination may require both Th1 and Th17 immune responses to protect mice against tuberculosis.


PMID 25252198

Abstract

Almost one century after the discovery of the BCG vaccine, tuberculosis remains a major cause of global mortality and morbidity, emphasizing the urgent need to design more efficient vaccines. The heparin-binding haemagglutinin (HBHA) appears to be a promising vaccine candidate, as it was shown to afford protection to mice against a challenge infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis when combined with the strong adjuvant DDA/MPL (dimethyldioctadecyl-ammonium bromide/monophosphoryl lipid A), a TLR4 ligand. In this study, we investigated the immunological response and protection of mice immunized with HBHA formulated in lipid-containing nanoparticles and adjuvanted with CpG, a TLR9 ligand. Subcutaneous immunization with this HBHA formulation led to a marked Th1 response, characterized by high IFN-γ levels, but no significant IL-17 production, both in spleen and lung, in contrast to DDA/MPL MPL-formulated HBHA, which induced both IFN-γ and IL-17. This cytokine profile was also observed in BCG-primed mice and persisted after M. tuberculosis infection. No significant protection was obtained against challenge infection after vaccination with the nanoparticle-CpG formulation, and this was associated with a failure to mount a memory immune response. These results suggest the importance of both Th1 and Th17 immune responses for vaccine-induced immunity.