Molecular pharmaceutics

An in vitro digestion test that reflects rat intestinal conditions to probe the importance of formulation digestion vs first pass metabolism in Danazol bioavailability from lipid based formulations.

PMID 25265395


The impact of gastrointestinal (GI) processing and first pass metabolism on danazol oral bioavailability (BA) was evaluated after administration of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) in the rat. Danazol absolute BA was determined following oral and intraduodenal (ID) administration of LFCS class IIIA medium chain (MC) formulations at high (SEDDSH-III) and low (SEDDSL-III) drug loading and a lipid free LFCS class IV formulation (SEDDS-IV). Experiments were conducted in the presence and absence of ABT (1-aminobenzotriazole) to evaluate the effect of first pass metabolism. A series of modified in vitro lipolysis tests were developed to better understand the in vivo processing of SEDDS in the rat. Danazol BA was low (<13%) following oral and ID administration of either SEDDS. Increasing drug loading, ID rather than oral administration, and administration of SEDDS-IV rather than SEDDS-III led to higher oral BA. After pretreatment with ABT, however, danazol oral BA significantly increased (e.g., 60% compared to 2% after administration of SEDDSL-III), no effect was observed on increasing drug loading, and differences between SEDDS-III and -IV were minimal. In vitro digestion models based on the lower enzyme activity and lower dilution conditions expected in the rat resulted in significantly reduced danazol precipitation from SEDDS-III or SEDDS-IV on initiation of digestion. At the doses administered here (4-8 mg/kg), the primary limitation to danazol oral BA in the rat was first pass metabolism, and the fraction absorbed was >45% after oral administration of SEDDS-III or SEDDS-IV. In contrast, previous studies in dogs suggest that danazol BA is less dependent on first pass metabolism and more sensitive to changes in formulation processing. In vitro digestion models based on likely rat GI conditions suggest less drug precipitation on formulation digestion when compared to equivalent dog models, consistent with the increases in in vivo exposure (fraction absorbed) seen here in ABT-pretreated rats.