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The Journal of veterinary medical science

Amphotericin B induces glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in the rat brain.


PMID 25283947

Abstract

Amphotericin B (AmB) is a polyene antifungal drug and is reported to be one of a few reagents having therapeutic effects on prion diseases, that is, a delay in the appearance of clinical signs and prolongation of the survival time in an animal model. In prion diseases, glial cells have been suggested to play important roles; however, the therapeutic mechanism of AmB on prion diseases remains elusive. We have previously reported that AmB changed the expression of neurotrophic factors in microglia and astrocytes (Motoyoshi et al., 2008, Neurochem. Int. 52, 1290-1296; Motoyoshi-Yamashiro et al., 2013, ibid. 63, 93-100). These results suggested that neurotrophic factors derived from glial cells might be involved in the therapeutic mechanism of AmB. In the present study, we examined immunohistochemically the effects of AmB on the expression of neurotrophic factors in the rat brain. We found that direct injection of AmB into the striatum significantly enhanced the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor protein. Amphotericin B also increased the expressions of CD11b and glial fibrillary acidic protein, markers of microglia and astrocytes, respectively. Moreover, expressions of the two neurotrophic factors by AmB were co-localized with the expression of CD11b or glial fibrillary acidic protein. These results suggest that AmB in vivo might also activate glial cells and induce the production of neurotrophic factors protecting neurons in prion diseases.