American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology

ROCK-dependent ATP5D modulation contributes to the protection of notoginsenoside NR1 against ischemia-reperfusion-induced myocardial injury.

PMID 25305180


Cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury remains a challenge for clinicians, which initiates with energy metabolism disorder. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of notoginsenoside R1 (NR1) on I/R-induced cardiac injury and underlying mechanism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 30-min occlusion of the left coronary anterior descending artery followed by reperfusion with or without NR1 pretreatment (5 mg·kg(-1)·h(-1)). In vitro, H9c2 cells were cultured under oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation conditions after NR1 (0.1 mM), Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 (10 μM), or RhoA/ROCK activator U-46619 (10 nM) administration. Myocardial infarct size, myocardial histology, and cardiac function were evaluated. Myofibril and mitochondria morphology were observed by transmission electron microscopy. F-actin and apoptosis were determined by immunofluorescence and TUNEL staining. ATP and AMP content were assessed by ELISA. Phosphorylated-AMP-activated protein kinase, ATP synthase subunits, apoptosis-related molecules, and the level and activity of ROCK were determined by Western blot analysis. We found that NR1 pretreatment ameliorated myocardial infarction, histological injury, and cardiac function induced by I/R. Furthermore, similar to the effect of Y-27632, NR1 improved H9c2 cell viability, maintained actin skeleton and mitochondria morphology, and attenuated apoptosis induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation. Importantly, NR1 prevented energy abnormity, inhibited the expression and activation of ROCK, and restored the expression of the mitochondrial ATP synthase δ-subunit both in vivo and in vitro, whereas U-46619 suppressed the effect of NR1. These results prove NR1 as an agent able to prevent I/R-induced energy metabolism disorder via inhibiting ROCK and enhancing mitochondrial ATP synthase δ-subunits, which at least partially contributes to its protection against cardiac I/R injury.

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