Experimental eye research

Preclinical pharmacology, ocular tolerability and ocular hypotensive efficacy of a novel non-peptide bradykinin mimetic small molecule.

PMID 25307520


We sought to characterize the ocular pharmacology, tolerability and intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy of FR-190997, a non-peptidic bradykinin (BK) B2-receptor agonist. FR-190997 possessed a relatively high receptor binding affinity (Ki = 27 nM) and a high in vitro potency (EC50 = 18.3 ± 4.4 nM) for inositol-1-phosphate generation via human cloned B2-receptors expressed in host cells with mimimal activity at B1-receptors. It also mobilized intracellular Ca2+ in isolated human trabecular meshwork (h-TM), ciliary muscle (h-CM), and in immortalized non-pigmented ciliary epithelial (h-iNPE) cells (EC50s = 167-384 nM; Emax = 32-86% of BK-induced response). HOE-140, a selective B2-receptor antagonist, potently blocked the latter effects of FR-190997 (e.g., IC50 = 7.3 ± 0.6 nM in h-CM cells). FR-190997 also stimulated the release of prostaglandins (PGs) from h-TM and h-CM cells (EC50s = 60-84 nM; Emax = 29-44% relative to max. BK-induced effects). FR-190997 (0.3-300 μg t.o.) did not activate cat corneal polymodal nociceptors and did not cause ocular discomfort in Dutch-Belted rabbits, but it was not well tolerated in New Zealand albino rabbits and Hartley guinea pigs. A single topical ocular (t.o.) dose of 1% FR-190997 in Dutch-Belted rabbits and mixed breed cats did not lower IOP. However, FR-190997 efficaciously lowered IOP of conscious ocular hypertensive cynomolgus monkey eyes (e.g., 34.5 ± 7.5% decrease; 6 h post-dose of 30 μg t.o.; n = 8). Thus, FR-190997 is an unexampled efficacious ocular hypotensive B2-receptor non-peptide BK agonist that activates multiple signaling pathways to cause IOP reduction.