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Biochimie

Changes in the activity of antioxidant barrier after treatment of K562 and CCRF-CEM cell lines with doxorubicin-transferrin conjugate.


PMID 25312849

Abstract

Doxorubicin (DOX), one of the oldest member of the anthracycline antibiotics, has been administered for over 50 years to patients with leukemias and solid tumors. However, the high unspecified DOX toxicity, related to reactive oxygen species (ROS), affects its limitation in clinical application. Therefore we proposed the usage of human transferrin as a doxorubicin carrier in order to improve the quality of doxorubicin application in conventional chemotherapy. In this study we continue our investigations related to the mechanism of the toxicity of doxorubicin-transferrin (DOX-TRF) conjugate in human leukemia cells. Consequently, we are now concentrating on the influence of this compound on the antioxidative system in K562 and CCRF-CEM cell lines (chronic erythromyeloblastoid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells, respectively). We carried out a neutral red cytotoxicity assay, reduced (GSH) and total (GSH + GSSG) glutathione content, alterations in the activity of catalase and enzymes responsible for maintaining glutathione in reduced form. Exposure of leukemia cells to the investigated anticancer agents caused a time-dependent depletion of intracellular GSH, accompanied by an increase of catalase activity. Moreover, analysis of GSH-related enzymes showed a significant increase in the activities of thioredoxin reductase and glutathione peroxidase after DOX-TRF application. In contrast, glutathione reductase activity was reduced by conjugate treatment to 50%. Significant differences between the pro-oxidative actions of the investigated anticancer compounds were observed in RT-PCR experiments, which confirmed that changes in the activity of catalase and GSH-related enzymes are strictly correlated with their gene transcription changes.