The Plant cell

Salicylic acid regulates Arabidopsis microbial pattern receptor kinase levels and signaling.

PMID 25315322


In Arabidopsis thaliana, responses to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are mediated by cell surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and include the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition in the cell wall, and the generation of the signal molecule salicylic acid (SA). SA acts in a positive feedback loop with ACCELERATED CELL DEATH6 (ACD6), a membrane protein that contributes to immunity. This work shows that PRRs associate with and are part of the ACD6/SA feedback loop. ACD6 positively regulates the abundance of several PRRs and affects the responsiveness of plants to two PAMPs. SA accumulation also causes increased levels of PRRs and potentiates the responsiveness of plants to PAMPs. Finally, SA induces PRR- and ACD6-dependent signaling to induce callose deposition independent of the presence of PAMPs. This PAMP-independent effect of SA causes a transient reduction of PRRs and ACD6-dependent reduced responsiveness to PAMPs. Thus, SA has a dynamic effect on the regulation and function of PRRs. Within a few hours, SA signaling promotes defenses and downregulates PRRs, whereas later (within 24 to 48 h) SA signaling upregulates PRRs, and plants are rendered more responsive to PAMPs. These results implicate multiple modes of signaling for PRRs in response to PAMPs and SA.