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The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy

Development, validation and clinical application of a novel method for the quantification of efavirenz in dried breast milk spots using LC-MS/MS.


PMID 25326089

Abstract

This manuscript describes the development, validation and clinical application of a novel method for the quantification of the antiretroviral drug efavirenz in dried breast milk spots using LC-MS. Dried breast milk spots were prepared by spotting 30 μL of human breast milk on each circle of Whatman 903 Protein Saver cards. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reverse-phase C18 column with 1 mM ammonium acetate in water/acetonitrile using a solvent gradient at a flow rate of 400 μL/min and detection was by TSQ Quantum Access triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with a heated electrospray ionization source. The method was applied to characterize the breast milk pharmacokinetic profile of efavirenz in HIV-positive nursing mothers receiving regimens containing 600 mg of efavirenz once daily. The assay was validated over the concentration range 50-7500 ng/mL. Accuracy ranged between 95.2% and 102.5% and precision ranged between 1.05% and 9.53%. The average recovery of efavirenz from dried breast milk spots was 106.4% and the matrix effect was 8.14%. Stability of efavirenz in dried breast milk spots and processed samples at room temperature, -40°C and -80°C was demonstrated. In the pharmacokinetic study, the mean (SD) AUC0-24, Cmax and Cmin of efavirenz in breast milk were 59,620 ng·h/mL (17,440), 4527 ng/mL (1767) and 1261 ng/mL (755.9), respectively. The mean (range) milk-to-plasma concentration ratio over the dosing interval was 0.78 (0.57-1.26). The dried breast milk spot method is simple, robust, accurate and precise, and can be used in settings with limited resources.

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