Interleukin-22 and CD160 play additive roles in the host mucosal response to Clostridium difficile infection in mice.

PMID 25327211


Our previous work has shown the significant up-regulation of Il22 and increased phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as part of the mucosal inflammatory response to Clostridium difficile infection in mice. Others have shown that phosphorylation of STAT3 at mucosal surfaces includes interleukin-22 (IL-22) and CD160-mediated components. The current study sought to determine the potential role(s) of IL-22 and/or CD160 in the mucosal response to C.xa0difficile infection. Clostridium difficile-infected mice treated with anti-IL-22, anti-CD160 or a combination of the two showed significantly reduced STAT3 phosphorylation in comparison to C.xa0difficile-infected mice that had not received either antibody. In addition, C.xa0difficile-infected mice treated with anti-IL-22/CD160 induced a smaller set of genes, and at significantly lower levels than the untreated C.xa0difficile-infected mice. The affected genes included pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, and anti-microbial peptides. Furthermore, histopathological and flow cytometric assessments both showed a significantly reduced influx of neutrophils in C.xa0difficile-infected mice treated with anti-IL-22/CD160. These data demonstrate that IL-22 and CD160 are together responsible for a significant fraction of the colonic STAT3 phosphorylation in C.xa0difficile infection. They also underscore the additive effects of IL-22 and CD160 in mediating both the pro-inflammatory and pro-survival aspects of the host mucosal response in this infection.