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Journal of diabetes

Pharmacological characterization of ZYDPLA1, a novel long-acting dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor.


PMID 25327540

Abstract

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is responsible for degradation of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), the endogenous incretins that stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion. The objective was to evaluate preclinical profile of a novel DPP-4 inhibitor ZYDPLA1. In vitro inhibition potency and selectivity were assessed using recombinant enzymes and/or plasma. In vivo efficacy was determined in oral glucose tolerance test or mixed meal tolerance test in C57BL/6J mice, db/db mice and Zucker fatty rats. Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics was studied in mice, rats, dogs, and non-human primates. ZYDPLA1 is a potent, competitive and long acting inhibitor of DPP-4 (Ki 0.0027 μM; Koff 2.3 × 10(-4 ) s(-1) ). ZYDPLA1 was more than 7000-fold selective for recombinant DPP-4 relative to DPP-8 and DPP-9, and more than 60 000-fold selective relative to fibroblast activation protein (FAP) in vitro. DPP-4 inhibition was comparable across species. In vivo, oral ZYDPLA1 elevated circulating GLP-1 and insulin levels in mice and rats and showed dose-dependent anti-hyperglycemic effect. Anti-hyperglycemic effect was also observed in db/db mice and Zucker fatty rats. ZYDPLA1 showed low clearance, large volume of distribution, and a long half-life with excellent oral bioavailability in all species. It significantly inhibited plasma DPP-4 activity in mice and rats for more than 48 h, and for up to 168 h in dogs and non-human primates. Allometric scaling predicted a half-life in humans of 53 to 166 h. ZYDPLA1 is a potent, selective, long-acting oral DPP-4 inhibitor with potential to become once-a-week therapy for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.